Therapy Toronto Psychotherapy Definitions

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Click through the highlighted term to read more about a particular subject .
Sandplay
Sandplay is a therapeutic modality that employs simple tools to enable people (particularly the young) to express themselves from the deeper levels of the psyche.
Schema
The word schema is used to describe a mental process for efficiently processing and organizing incoming information.
Schema-Focused Cognitive Therapy
Schema-Focused Cognitive Therapy is an integrative approach to treatment that combines the best aspects of cognitive-behavioral, experiential, interpersonal and psychoanalytic therapies into one unified model.
Self
The concept of the self is relatively new within psychotherapy. It is largely due to the writing of Carl Jung who sought a word other than ‘soul’ to describe the whole nature of an individual beyond the tripartite structure of Ego, Superego and Id proposed by Freud.
Self-Confidence
To feel self-confidence is to have the assured sense of one's place in their world and their on-going responses.

A person with adequate self-confidence is conscious of their powers and abilities helping them to maneuver their life challenges with ease.
Self-Esteem
Self-esteem is the opinion you have of yourself.

Adequate self-esteem based on a clear personal appreciation of your character, talents, values and desires is essential to a satisfactory life.
Self-Harm
Self-Harm describes actions causing some bodily damage that are inflicted by a person on him or herself to relieve distress.
Self-Image
Self-image refers to the way in which we see ourself, both immediately and though the eyes of others.

It has special importance in terms of how we relate to our own physicality and self-presentation. Our self-image is often also further affected by marketing images of the 'ideal person' in our modern society.
Self-Knowledge
Self-knowledge may be defined as a confident sense of thorough familiarity with your emotional responses, reactions, and tendencies and what causes them, creating a secure feeling that you are living with a sense of emotional control.
Self-Love
Self-love is the capacity to offer yourself care, acceptance, forgiveness, and respect. It is, as Maya Angelou writes, knowing that "you alone are enough. you don't have anything to prove to anybody".
Self-Psychology
Self-Psychology arose from the work of Heinz Kohut, for many years a traditional psychoanalyst.
Sensorimotor
Sensorimotor Psychotherapy (SP) is a mindfulness-based method that is done in a highly collaborative manner and includes liberal amounts of psycho-education as well as somatic education.
Session
Common term for the therapeutic meetings of a client and a therapist. Typically, sessions last from 50 to 60 minutes.
Sexual Abuse
Sexual abuse, particularly when we are young, has lasting negative effects on our lives. It affects our capacity to trust, to distinguish between love and sexual activity, and to make our own choices in how we live.
Sexuality
A rich complex area of human experience linked to creativity and the expression of self.
Shame
In psychotherapy, shame refers not to the simple reactions we all endure for having done said or thought something foolish or uncaring.

Rather, it refers to the deep scarring of our personality that arises from our having been unfairly treated by others who have power over our emotions and use it unfairly.
Shiatsu
Shiatsu is a form of bodywork with roots in Traditional Chinese Medicine, and literally translates to mean “finger pressure”.
Short-Term Therapy
Short-term therapy usually refers to therapies lasting less than 40 hours, and especially those lasting fewer than 12 hours.

This covers all forms of therapy that are concluded within a single year, based on a weekly session or meeting.
Silence
Silence is an important aspect of therapeutic communication.
Silencing Response
“The Silencing Response is a reaction based on a series of assumptions which guide the caregiver to redirect, shutdown, minimize, or neglect the disturbing information brought by the individual [or situation] to the caregiver.” (Baranowsky,1998)
Singles
The experience of being single is most often seen by the individual as a crisis of being without a significant other.
Sleep Disorders
Sleep disorders are a group of conditions characterized by difficulties related to sleeping.

These include difficulty falling or staying asleep, falling asleep at inappropriate times, restlessness, excessive total sleep time, or abnormal behaviors associated with sleep such as nightmares and sleepwalking.
Social Isolation
Modern urban society provides few valid ways for many to connect with others who recognize and respect them as persons.
Solution-Focussed Brief Therapy
Solution-focussed brief therapy (SFBT) is an outcome-directed collaborative approach to creating psychotherapeutic change. SFBT focuses on understanding what a client wants to achieve or the outcome they would like to experience.

Soma
The word soma derives from the Greek word for 'body'. It is the source of physical sensation, sometimes confusingly called 'feeling'.
Somatic
This refers to the body's means of expressing itself through physical states. See Psychosomatic for more information.
Somatoform Disorder
Somatoform Disorder describes a group of conditions in which the physical pain and symptoms a person feels are related to psychological factors. It is a body sensation that appears to not be connected to an obvious physical problem and is believed to have psychological origins such as emotional and/or physical trauma that is expressed through unusual bodily sensations.
Sorge
Heidegger's preferred word for what he thought was the essence of being human in the best sense.
Soul
Sigmund Freud, already a neurologist and physician, described himself as a ‘Seelenarzt’ or ‘soul doctor’ when he embarked on the development of psychoanalysis. He believed in the primacy of individual existence.
Spiritual Issues/Direction
Many definitions of this work exist. We offer some of them here.
Spiritual Self Schema Therapy
Spiritual Self Schema Therapy (3-S) is a convergence of Buddhist principles and practices and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT).
Spiritually-Oriented
Spiritually-oriented Psychotherapy acknowledges the metaphysical/spiritual level of the human experience, including quantum concepts and phenomena such as healing energy, intentionality and consciousness.
Sports Psychotherapy
Sports are complex hybrids of physical and psychic interactions. Sports psychotherapy improves performance.
Strange Situation Protocol
This refers to a means of testing the attachment styles of toddlers developed by a team led by Mary Ainsworth.
Stress
Stress is usually defined as excess physical, emotional or psychic strain.

This allows us to include a wide range of subjective experiences within it. Clearly, the factors creating stress vary greatly for each of us.

Is stress a symptom, a pointer to an underlying issue, or a physical condition that creates emotional reactions in us?
Striving Styles Personality System
The Striving Styles Personality System™ is an effective method through which qualified psychotherapists can enable their clients to identify their deeper primary emotional needs, thus stimulating self-awareness and expediting their personal development within the framework of psychotherapy.
Striving Styles Qualified Practitioner (SSQP)
The SSQP designation refers to individuals who have taken the Striving Styles Qualifying Workshop.
Subconscious
This term is often used to refer to the Unconscious but is not identical to it.
Subjectivity
A fairly recent concept in psychodynamic psychotherapy is the notion of subjectivity and its related term, inter-subjectivity. Within the North American schools these concepts signal a distinct departure from traditional and classical views of the defenses first described by Freud.
Substance Abuse
This term is generally used to refer to the inappropriate over-use of alcohol, drugs (both prescription and illegal) and food.
Suicide Survivors
When someone we are attached to commits or attempts to commit suicide, those left behind are sometimes referred to as suicide survivors or completed suicide survivors.
Superego
The superego is that which is above the ego and commands the ego to act in only specific ways. Superego can be both positive and negative.
Sympathy
This literally means having a common feeling. It is an important component of the connection between human beings.
Syzygy
See Zyzygy.
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